From the MLPD Facebook – Tuesday afternoon Moses Lake Police officers received information that Michael Castoreno, 34 years of age, was in the Moses Lake area. Officers knew Mr. Castoreno was wanted on a Department of Corrections warrant as well as an Adams County warrant, both of which were for drug related charges. Officers were able to locate Mr. Castoreno’s vehicle at a residence in the Terrace area and set up surveillance.This is where it gets interesting. While officers were waiting for assistance from the US Marshall’s Violent Offender Task Force to apprehend Mr. Castoreno, he decided to leave the residence in his vehicle. Mr. Castoreno is known to flee from the police and was reported to have a firearm. As the police moved in, Mr. Castoreno decided he did not want to go to jail and continued to drive away. Unfortunately for him an officer had been positioned, just in case, with spike strips and these were deployed spiking at least two of his tires. Mr. Castoreno continued running from law enforcement and eventually headed southbound on Highway 17 where he was again spiked. Now on just one inflated tire, which fortunately greatly reduced his speed to about 35 miles per hour, he continued all the way to the town of Warden, where he has family. To add to his misfortune, Mr. Castoreno collided with a US Marshall’s vehicle. Not good. In Warden Mr. Castoreno led police on a tour of the town. When he finally decided to stop, or his heavily damaged vehicle decided to stop, Mr. Castoreno was not done running and he took off on foot. Now here is where the story gets even more intriguing. Officer Stewart and his K-9 partner “Chief” were hot on Mr. Castoreno’s trail and “Chief” was deployed to end Mr. Castoreno’s flight, which he did successfully. While Mr. Castoreno was on the ground, Moses Lake Police Chief Kevin Fuhr, who had followed the pursuit to monitor the situation, assisted the other “Chief” and took Mr. Castoreno into custody. Mr. Castoreno was booked into the Grant County Jail on a host of charges. More importantly, no one was hurt. Officers later located four handguns in Mr. Castoreno’s vehicle. In case you have not surmised this, Mr. Castoreno is a convicted felon, which makes having four handguns a big no no.
Source:https://www.brighamandwomens.org/ Jun 5 2018In a presentation at the annual meeting of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, and in a simultaneous publication in Circulation, investigators from Brigham and Women’s Hospital presented evidence that a next-generation cardiac pump device not only improves long-term outcomes but may also decrease cost of care over time for heart failure patients. The research team analyzed results from the MOMENTUM 3 trial, which compared two devices: The HeartMate II (current generation) and HeartMate 3 (a novel, centrifugal-flow pump), both manufactured by Abbott, Inc., which sponsored the study.”The HeartMate 3 left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a more forgiving pump in terms of clinical adverse events, and now we can confirm that its increased effectiveness is associated with decreased costs,” said Mandeep Mehra, MD, executive director of the Center for Advanced Heart Disease and medical director of the Heart & Vascular Center at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “In medicine, most often, a therapy that demonstrates increased effectiveness usually comes at a higher price, and we are able to show that this new technology actually decreases costs to payers and patients over time.”Related StoriesStudy analyzes high capacity of A. baumannii to persist on various surfacesCutting around 300 calories a day protects the heart even in svelte adultsStudy explores role of iron in over 900 diseasesMehra and colleagues found that the newer device reduced costs due to re-hospitalization by 51 percent, largely driven by a decrease in stroke and pump malfunction requiring reoperation due to pump thrombosis. Patients who received the HeartMate 3 experienced fewer hospitalizations and, on average, spent 8.3 fewer days in the hospital per year than those who received the HeartMate II. The authors note that it may be possible to further reduce costs by decreasing outlier complications and reducing hospital length of stay, and decrease early complications by improving patient selection criteria and considering this therapy before patients get too sick.In April, Abbott Inc. issued a field safety notice regarding HeartMate 3 outflow graft twist complications with an incidence rate of 0.72 percent. The FDA issued a Class I recall but did not recommend the return of LVADs or avoidance of use in new patients. The current study re-reviewed 20 hospitalizations (five in the HeartMate 3 and 15 in the HeartMate II populations) and in a conservative analysis, classified them as being device-related for the purposes of this analysis. Nonetheless, the data still demonstrated a reduction in re-hospitalization related hospital days and significant cost savings for the HeartMate 3 compared to the HeartMate II.
Jul 31 2018Chemists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have developed a new method of observing the chemical reactions of individual silver nanoparticles, which only measure a thousandth of the thickness of a human hair, in real time. The particles are used in medicine, food and sports items because they have an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect. However, how they react and degrade in ecological and biological systems is so far barely understood. The team in the Research Group for Electrochemistry and Nanoscale Materials showed that the nanoparticles transform into poorly soluble silver chloride particles under certain conditions. The group led by Prof Dr. Kristina Tschulik reports on the results in the Journal of the American Chemical Society from July 11, 2018.Measurement in a natural environmentEven under well-defined laboratory conditions, current research has yielded different, sometimes contradictory, results on the reaction of silver nanoparticles. “In every batch of nanoparticles, the individual properties of the particles, such as size and shape, vary,” says Kristina Tschulik, a member of the Cluster of Excellence Ruhr Explores Solvation. “With previous procedures, a myriad of particles was generally investigated at the same time, meaning that the effects of these variations could not be recorded. Or the measurements took place in a high vacuum, not under natural conditions in an aqueous solution.”The team led by Kristina Tschulik thus developed a method that enables individual silver particles to be investigated in a natural environment. “Our aim is to be able to record the reactivity of individual particles,” explains the researcher. This requires a combination of electrochemical and spectroscopic methods. With optical and hyperspectral dark-field microscopy, the group was able to observe individual nanoparticles as visible and colored pixels. Using the change in the color of the pixels, or more precisely their spectral information, the researchers were able to follow what was happening in an electrochemical experiment in real time.Related StoriesHeat from nanoparticles zaps cancer cells from insideAn injection of nanoparticles for spinal cord injuriesMultifunctional nanoparticles could revolutionize treatments for complex bone diseasesDegradation of the particles slowed downIn the experiment, the team replicated the oxidation of silver in the presence of chloride ions, which often takes place in ecological and biological systems. “Until now, it was generally assumed that the silver particles dissolve in the form of silver ions,” describes Kristina Tschulik. However, poorly soluble silver chloride was formed in the experiment – even if only a few chloride ions were present in the solution.”This extends the lifespan of the nanoparticles to an extreme extent and their breakdown is slowed down in an unexpectedly drastic manner,” summarizes Tschulik. “This is equally important for bodies of water and for living beings because this mechanism could cause the heavy metal silver to accumulate locally, which can be toxic for many organisms.”Further development plannedThe Bochum-based group now wants to further improve its technology for analyzing individual nanoparticles in order to better understand the aging mechanisms of such particles. The researchers thus want to obtain more information about the biocompatibility of the silver particles and the lifespan and aging of catalytically active nanoparticles in the future. Source:http://news.rub.de/english/press-releases/2018-07-30-chemistry-individual-silver-nanoparticles-observed-real-time
Nearly 28 years after the worst nuclear accident in history, several bird species are doing the seemingly impossible: flourishing inside the radioactive Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in Ukraine. Due to lingering radiation from the 1986 meltdown of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, humans aren’t allowed to live there—but the region has become an accidental ecological testing ground for scientists interested in studying the effects of radiation on wild animals. Ionizing radiation damages living cells by producing free radicals, leading to genetic damage and, eventually, death. An animal’s only hope is to neutralize those free radicals by upping its production of antioxidants. And that’s exactly what most birds in Chernobyl seem to be doing—with even better results than scientists expected. A team of ecologists used nets to capture 152 birds from 16 species inside and around the 2600-square-kilometer exclusion zone. After assessing the birds’ antioxidant levels, amount of DNA damage, and body condition, the researchers were surprised to find that most of the birds, like the hawfinch pictured above, seemed to benefit from the chronic exposure to radiation. Birds found in areas with higher radiation levels had more antioxidants and better overall body condition, the team reports online this week in Functional Ecology. This is the first known example of wild animals adapting to chronic radiation exposure, the researchers say. The only two bird species negatively affected by the radiation—the great tit (Parus major) and barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)—both produce large amounts of pinkish pheomelanin pigment in their feathers. Because pheomelanin production requires lots of antioxidants, the researchers suspect these birds may not have enough left over to fight off the free radicals. In Chernobyl, it seems that fancy feathers come at a high price.See more ScienceShots.
Most nectar-feeding animals evolve special quirks (mainly of the tongue) that optimize their eating habits. But for the groove-tongued bat Lonchophylla robusta, evolution has dealt a bit of a strange hand. Instead of lapping up or siphoning liquid as other mammals do, this bat hovers over its food source and dips its long, slender tongue into the nectar, keeping contact the entire time it drinks. Researchers filmed the bat with a high-speed video camera to try to decipher the special tongue mechanism, and watched as the fluid flowed upward along the bat’s tongue, against gravity, and into its mouth. Today, researchers report in Science Advances that the conveyor belt–like mechanism may actually allow these bats to feed more efficiently from certain types of flowers. Exactly how the nectar travels up the tongue is still a mystery, but they suspect that the transport likely comes from a combination of grooves in the tongue and capillary action—a fluid action that allows liquid to flow through narrow channels (the same mechanism that lets paper towels soak up water). So far, the groove-tongued bat is alone in its anomalous nectar slurping technique, but the finding opens up new areas in fluid dynamics and ecology for researchers to explore.
Other researchers who have long been skeptical that Au. sediba was an ancestor of Homo found Kimbel’s talk persuasive: “Spot on,” says paleoanthropologist Bernard Wood of George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall of the American Museum of Natural History in New York agrees with Kimbel that Au. sediba is most closely related to Au. africanus and that neither species is ancestral to early Homo. NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA—A remarkably complete skeleton introduced in 2010 as “the best candidate” for the immediate ancestor of our genus Homo may just be a pretender. Instead of belonging to the human lineage, the new species of Australopithecus sediba is more closely related to other hominins from South Africa that are on a side branch of the human family tree, according to a new analysis of the fossil presented here last week at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Brett Eloff/Courtesy Profberger and Wits University But paleoanthropologist Darryl de Ruiter of Texas A&M University in College Station, a co-author with Berger on the 2013 paper describing the skull, says he and his former graduate student reached “the opposite conclusion” when they used computational methods to project how the skull would have changed as it matured. “I disagree with his impression that the changes that [the skull] would have undergone had it lived to adulthood would be so extensive as to make it appear like Au. africanus,” said de Ruiter, who heard Kimbel’s talk. By Ann GibbonsApr. 23, 2017 , 7:00 PM The only way to know what an adult Au. sediba’s skull and face really looked like, he says, is to find one: “The ultimate resolution of the question must await the long-hoped-for recovery of the adult cranium of Au. sediba.” In a talk here, though, paleoanthropologist Bill Kimbel of Arizona State University in Tempe analyzed the most complete skull of Au. sediba and systematically shot down the features claimed to link it to early Homo. Kimbel noted that the skull was that of a juvenile—a “7th grader”—whose face and skull were still developing. In his analysis, with paleoanthropologist Yoel Rak of Tel Aviv University in Israel, he concluded that the child already showed traits that linked it most closely to the South African australopithecine Au. africanus, a species that lived in South Africa 3 million to 2.3 million years ago. And had it survived to adulthood, its humanlike facial traits would have changed to become even more like those of Au. africanus. This skull may have grown up to look more like an australopithecine than a human-like member of our genus Homo A famous ‘ancestor’ may be ousted from the human family For example, the breadth of the young Au. sediba’s cheekbones appears narrow, as in early Homo. But by studying other australopithecine, ape, and Homo fossils to see how features of the cheekbones change as individuals grow and chewing muscles develop, Kimbel and Rak could predict how the boy’s face and skull would have looked if he’d grown up to be an adult. The resemblance to Au. africanus is so striking, in fact, that Kimbel thinks Au. sediba is a closely related “sister species” of Au. africanus—and not a long-lost human relative. “We don’t believe … that Au. sediba has a unique relationship to the genus Homo,” says Kimbel. With its fossils dated to 1.98 million years ago, Au. sediba is too young to be directly ancestral to all members of the genus Homo. But Berger and his colleagues proposed in 2010, and again in 2013 in six papers in Science, that given the many humanlike traits in Au. sediba’s face, teeth, and body, the Malapa fossils were a better candidate than Lucy or other East African fossils to be ancestral to Homo erectus, a direct human ancestor that appeared 1.8 million years ago. When fossils from several individuals’ skeletons were found in a collapsed cave in Malapa, South Africa, in 2008, their discoverer, paleoanthropologist Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand, noted that they helped fill a key gap in the fossil record 2 million to 3 million years ago when some upright-walking australopithecine evolved into the earliest member of our genus, Homo. But the oldest Homo fossils, at 2.4 million to 2.9 million years, are scrappy, and a half dozen more primitive hominins may have been walking around Africa at roughly the right time to be the ancestor. Researchers have hotly debated whether their direct ancestor was the famous 3.2-million-year-old fossil Lucy and her kind, Australopithecus afarensis from Ethiopia, or another australopithecine.
We’ve all seen images or animations of hurricanes that color code the wind speeds inside the whirling mass—but it turns out we can do a better job measuring these winds and, as a result, better predict the path of the storm. Staff Writer Paul Voosen talks with host Sarah Crespi about how a microsatellite-based project for measuring hurricane wind speeds is showing signs of success—despite unexpected obstacles from the U.S. military’s tweaking of GPS signals. Also this week, Sarah talks with graduate student Samantha Trumbo, a Ph.D. candidate in planetary science at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, about spotting chloride salts on the surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa. What can these salts on the surface tell us about the oceans that lie beneath Europa’s icy crust?Download a transcript (PDF) This week’s episode was edited by Podigy.Ads on the show: KiwiCo.com; MagellanTVListen to previous podcasts.About the Science Podcast[Image: Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute; Music: Jeffrey Cook] NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute
By Linda Kor In an effort to collect the over $800,000 taken from the Silver Creek Irrigation District in Snowflake between 2012 and 2016, a Stipulated Judgment and Order for Forfeiture has been issuedSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad Silver Creek Irrigation District to recover a portion of stolen funds April 30, 2019
Advertising Post Comment(s) India told ICJ that Kulbhushan Jadhav was “kidnapped from Iran, where he was carrying on business after retiring from the Indian Navy, and was then shown to have been arrested in Baluchistan” on March 3, 2016. Pak informed India only on March 25, 2016. India sought consular access that same day, and repeatedly afterward. On March 21, 2017, Pakistan issued a note verbale saying consular access would be considered in the light of India’s response to its request for assistance in the probe.May 8, 2017India began proceedings against Pak “for egregious violations of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963” in detaining Jadhav, and in his sentencing to death by a military court. India asked that the death sentence be declared violative of international law and suspended, and that Pak be restrained from giving effect to it and directed to annul the decision — failing which ICJ should declare the conviction and sentencing illegal, and direct Pak to release Jadhav immediately.May 9, 2017ICJ President asked Pak “to act in such a way as will enable any order the Court may make… to have its appropriate effects”.May 18, 2017 Kulbhushan Jadhav verdict: Sushma to Salve, diplomats to lawyers wrote script By Express News Service |New Delhi | Published: July 18, 2019 2:58:17 am Related News Relieved, gratified, says Harish Salve on ICJ ruling Jadhav with his wife and mother when they met across a glass partition at the Pakistan Foreign Office in Islamabad on December 25, 2017.2016-17 Court directed Pak to not execute Jadhav till it takes a final view, and to keep it informed.June 13, 2017September 13 and December 13 set as deadlines for India’s memorial and Pak’s counter-memorial.January 17, 2018April 17 and July 17 fixed as deadlines for India’s reply and Pak’s rejoinder, respectively.February 18-21, 2019Two rounds of oral arguments.July 4, 2019ICJ announced that President of the Court, Judge Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf, will read decision on July 17.July 17, 2019ICJ ruled that Pakistan must review the and reconsider Jadhav’s conviction and sentence. The court granted India consular access and legal representation to Jadhav. Kulbhushan Jadhav ICJ Verdict: Govt, Oppn hail ruling; PM Modi says truth prevailed Advertising
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jan 22 2019Diseases such as multiple sclerosis are characterized by damage to the ‘myelin sheath’, a protective covering wrapped around nerve cells akin to insulation around an electrical wire. Researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin have discovered how the body initiates repair mechanisms which will limit the extent of any damage to this sheath. Their findings, which provide a basis for the development of new drugs to treat multiple sclerosis, have been published in the eminent journal Nature Communications.Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Estimates suggest that more than 200,000 people are affected by the disease in Germany alone. People with multiple sclerosis experience vision and sensory problems, as well as impaired coordination or even paralysis. These symptoms are caused by the disruption of nerve impulses in either the brain or the spinal cord. This disruption occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the myelin sheath, which is wrapped around the body’s nerve fibers and provides electrical insulation. When the myelin sheath is no longer intact, communication between nerve cells is impaired. Researchers across the globe are searching for new ways to repair the myelin sheath and, in doing so, are looking to reduce neurological symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis. Researchers from Charité have now moved a decisive step closer to this goal.Charité’s research team decided to take a closer look at the body’s innate ability to heal itself, knowing that, under certain conditions, the central nervous system is capable of repairing damage to the myelin sheath. Specific molecular signals enable stem cells to differentiate into myelin repair cells (oligodendrocytes), which reside in a small stem-cell niche in the brain. Once they leave this niche, these repair cells migrate to where myelin damage has occurred in order to restore the affected nerve cells’ electrical insulation. Until now, very little had been known about the molecular signals responsible for initiating this myelin regeneration mechanism. “We have found that the Chi3l3 protein plays a central role in the body’s capacity to produce new myelin-forming oligodendrocytes,” says the study’s first author, Dr. Sarah-Christin Staroßom of Charité’s Institute for Medical Immunology. A researcher at the NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence and the Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Dr. Staroßom explains the protein’s role as follows: “The Chi3l3 protein initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into myelin repair cells, which restore the electrical insulation around damaged nerve cells.”Using a mouse model, the research team were able to show that a reduction in Chi3l3 levels in the brain significantly impairs the body’s capacity for oligodendrocyte production, while a Chi3l3 infusion leads to an increase in the production of myelin repair cells. The same reaction was observed during an in vitro experiment using human cells. “We hope to use this knowledge to develop a new generation of drugs that can be used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis,” explains Dr. Staroßom. “As a next step, we will study in greater detail whether Chi3l3 or related proteins can be used to reduce the neurological symptoms of patients with multiple sclerosis.” Source:https://www.charite.de/en/service/press_reports/artikel/detail/multiple_sklerose_hilfe_zur_zellulaeren_selbsthilfe/
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 26 2019Although the exact causes of multiple sclerosis still remain unknown, it is assumed that the disease is triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. But which? In a mouse model of the disease, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) , Switzerland, studied the potential link between transient cerebral viral infections in early childhood and the development of this cerebral autoimmune disease later in life. Indeed, the brain area affected by viral infection during childhood undergoes a change that can call, a long time later, on the immune system to turn against itself at this precise location, triggering autoimmune lesions. These results, which are published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, provide a first step in answering one of the possible environmental causes of this serious disease.Multiple sclerosis affects one in 1,000 people in Switzerland, two-thirds of whom are women. It is the most common auto-immune disease affecting the brain. Up to date, there is still neither a cure available, nor a clear understanding of the factors that trigger this disease at around 30 years of age. “We asked ourselves whether brain viral infections that could be contracted in early childhood were among the possible causes,” says Doron Merkler, a professor in the Department of Pathology and Immunology in UNIGE’s Faculty of Medicine and senior consultant in the Clinical Pathology Service of the HUG. Such transient brain infections can be controlled quickly by the immune system, without the affected individual even noticing any symptoms. “But these transient infections may, under certain circumstances, leave a local footprint, an inflammatory signature, in the brain,” continues the researcher.The childhood: a pivotal moment influencing disease riskThe scientists induced a transient viral infection in a group of adult mice and in a group of mice at a very young age in order to test this hypothesis.Karin Steinbach, a researcher in the same department, explains: The scientists then allowed the two groups of mice to grow older before they were transferred with self-reactive cells, which can target the normal brain structure and are also thought to contribute to the illness of patients with multiple sclerosis. “These self-reactive cells are present in most of us, but do not necessarily induce a disease, since they are controlled by different regulatory mechanisms and usually don’t have access to the brain,” explains Karin Steinbach. Indeed, in the group of mice infected with the virus in adulthood, the transferred self-reactive cells did not gain access to the brain and no brain lesions were observed. However, in those mice that had been infected at a very young age, the self-reactive cells gained access to the brain in adulthood, and migrated to the precise location where the infection had previously occurred. As a result, self-reactive cells started to attack the brain structure in these areas, leading to the development of brain lesions. Why was there such a difference depending on the age at which the mice suffered a prior viral infection?An accumulation of T cells gives the signalRelated StoriesStudy of MS patients shows 18% were given wrong diagnosesEndogenous retrovirus type W found to be a major contributor to nerve damage in MSObesity linked with greater symptomatic severity of multiple sclerosisDuring their analysis of the brains in the cohort of mice that had overcome the viral infection at a very young age, the researchers observed an accumulation of a sub-type of immune cells: so-called “brain-resident memory T cells”. “Under normal circumstances, these cells are distributed throughout the brain, ready to protect it in case of a viral attack. But here, the cells accumulate in surplus at the exact spot of the infantile infection in the brain,” says Professor Merkler. The researchers subsequently found that these cells produced a molecule that specifically attracts the self-reactive cells, allowing them to access the brain and to cause auto-immune brain lesions. “In order to verify this observation,” continues the professor, “we blocked the receptor that transmits the signal to the self-reactive cells. Indeed, the mice were then protected from developing brain lesions!”A similar phenomenon also occurs in humans”We then looked to see if we could find a similar accumulation of brain-resident memory T cells that produce this molecule in people with multiple sclerosis, and indeed we did”, says Karin Steinbach. By analogy, the scientists suggest self-reactive T cells in humans could gain access to the brain by a similar mechanism as observed in mice, something that requires future studies to elaborate on.”We are continuing our research in this direction. We particularly want to understand why brain-resident memory T cells accumulate in these discrete spots in a child’s brain following infection but not in adulthood,” concludes Karin Steinbach. In the future, the knowledge gained from these studies may help us understand better the possible causes of multiple sclerosis. Source:University of GenevaJournal reference:Steinbach, K. et al. (2019) Brain-resident memory T cells generated early in life predispose to autoimmune disease in mice. Science Translational Medicine. doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aav5519. In both cases, the mice showed no signs of the disease and eliminated the infection within a week with a similar anti-viral immune response.”
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 28 2019Stephanie lay in the Salt Lake County jail bunk bed and thought, “Everything would be better if I just died.”She was a burden to everyone she knew, and no one could trust her. She’d pawned her mom’s wedding ring, stolen her sister’s jewelry. There was nothing she wouldn’t do–or steal–to stave off the desperation, the seizures, and overwhelming sickness that assaulted her body every time she was “jonesing” for heroin. (Stephanie requested anonymity to share her story.)Sexually molested and raped as a child, she’d started using drugs when she was 13, while growing up in Springville and Provo. It wasn’t until she went to prison for drug-related crimes that she decided rather than dying, she wanted to change. “Me going to prison is what saved my life,” says the 37-year-old. She took up healthy habits, running every day in the women’s circular yard.But paroling from prison was one thing, transitioning back into society another. After a stint in the Orange Street halfway house for women, she lived in a tiny apartment with only a blanket and pillow–no food, no TV, or phone–while working as a server in a Mexican restaurant. She met her subsequent husband on Trax. He was working on his recovery from addiction using Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone), medication used in opioid replacement therapy. The couple relapsed and lived off scamming cash from stores with discarded receipts.Two more stints in prison and Stephanie and her partner couldn’t figure out how to turn their lives around. They would buy Suboxone from a dealer on the street, but when she found herself pregnant, she was terrified the state would take her baby away. Her doctor told her to aggressively taper the medication, but that only led to her craving heroin.Stephanie called Marcela Smid, M.D., the medical director of University of Utah Health’s Substance Use in Pregnancy Recovery Addiction Dependence (SUPeRAD), a specialty prenatal clinic for women with substance use issues.”I need to get off this,” she told Smid.”Don’t do anything,” Smid pleaded with her. “Stay on it. You’re stable on the medication and that is the most important thing you can do for you and your baby.”Fast forward 18 months and Stephanie has now been on the same dose of Suboxone for three years. Her one-year old scampers around the living room of her sparsely decorated Sandy home, while her husband is at work. “It’s sad,” she says. “There’s not a lot of help,” for pregnant women who are frightened of relapsing if they go off the treatment medication.While many providers and patients may view methadone or buprenorphine, two types of medications used to treat people with opioid use disorder, as a drug they need to be weaned off, Smid vehemently disagrees. Treating mothers helps to stabilize them and leads to the best outcomes for mother and infant. Addiction has been constructed as a social problem. Medicine is catching up that it’s truly a life-threatening, chronic medical condition.”Marcela Smid, M.D., medical director of University of Utah Health’s Substance Use in Pregnancy Recovery Addiction Dependence The cost of that mistaken perception is evident in a study that Smid has just published entitled, Pregnancy-Associated Death in Utah: Contribution of Drug-Induced Deaths. It highlights the unrecognized price Utah’s mothers are paying in the midst of the state’s opioid epidemic. Mothers who have a history of substance use disorders often relapse in the first year after childbirth. In total 35 Utah women fatally overdosed on drugs (74% were from opioids), between 2005 and 2014, making drug-induced deaths the top cause of pregnancy-associated deaths in the state. The vast majority (80%) of deaths occurred in the late postpartum period, between 43 days and one year after the birth, after most women have had their one postpartum check.Utah has long been in the grip of an opioid epidemic, from 2013 to 2015 ranking seventh in the U.S. for overdose deaths. It also has the highest rate of any state in the nation, at 42 percent, of pregnant women insured by Medicaid prescribed opioids, according to 2007 data.If more postpartum women are not to be lost to drugs, Smid urges that deep changes need to be wrought in terms of both public perception and treatment. “We have a huge problem,” Smid says. “Our moms are dying in Utah, a state which says it values family above all else.”Rethinking addictionSocietal norms may demand complete abstinence from mothers with substance use history to ensure a child born free of addiction. According to Smid, women with substance use issues do try to stop drug use during pregnancy. “Reproductive age women who do drugs, for whatever reason, when they get pregnant, they stop or decrease substance use when pregnant, but once they have their babies, many relapse.”OBGYN providers generally see mothers 1–2 times within the six weeks after the birth. “Six months in and the baby is still screaming, and it takes a toll on moms,” says Smid, in terms of the long-term follow-up with moms. And from the provider perspective, “many don’t know the mom was doing drugs or had a history or was in remission when pregnant because maybe they didn’t ask and the mom didn’t disclose.”While the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends ongoing postpartum or “fourth trimester care” rather than the post-birth single visit, the lack of providers nationwide versed in pregnancy and addiction is disturbing. There are only about four double-boarded maternal fetal medicine specialists who are also addiction medicine boarded in the U.S. says Smid, and she’s one of the four. “We don’t have that many people truly focused on pregnant and postpartum moms with addiction, which is incredible since it’s one of our most common conditions. It’s more common than type 1 diabetes.”Smid finds parallels between opioid addiction and diabetes instructive. In both cases, she says 10 to 20 percent of patients with chronic diabetes or opioid use disorder successfully come off their meds. “The vast majority need medication to stabilize their brain. Their bodies lack natural endorphins, or the circuitry is altered so much that natural production isn’t enough to make them stable.”Related StoriesCannabis use during pregnancy may cause premature birthPatients taking opioids for chronic pain could face health care access problemsMaternal prepregnancy surgery linked to increased risk of opioid withdrawal in newbornsYet none of the women in the study were on methadone or buprenorphine to treat opioid addiction. Smid argues that postpartum moms with opioid use disorder history should stay on their medications, stay in therapy, and not taper off, something that even patients have been conditioned to expect.”Do not think about tapering until kids are at least a year old,” Smid says. “Sometimes you don’t ever. Tpering may never be an option for you. You have a chronic life-threatening condition. Your brain may just need it.” She argues that since providers do not typically require patients to taper their diabetes medication, why force them to taper their medications for opioid addiction? “If more people thought about addiction like diabetes, we’d be in a better place. The vast majority of people need to be on medication for the rest of their lives.”Missed opportunitiesWhen Smid would ask patients about their first time on drugs many would say it was when they first felt normal, even happy, like they had emotions like everyone else. “It’s the first time it went from grey to color,” she says. “Your brain doesn’t make enough dopamine. You’ve added a substance that makes you feel great. That’s why it’s called ‘chasing the dragon.’ You want that feeling back.”Patients are at a moderate or high risk of developing addiction depending on their genes. “Most of our patients have family history of addiction that is deep on both sides,” Smid says. “You get exposure to drugs, you experiment with drugs, and if you have that physiology you’re throwing a match into kindling.”The study also highlights how society’s traditional view of people with addictions as shuffling derelicts strung out on the street is far from accurate. “People look at addicts and think they’re living on the streets, popping from one motel room to another,” Stephanie says.While women on State Street, North Temple, and Pioneer Park, living chaotic lives trading sex for drugs, are the most visible example of addiction, they are the minority in terms of reproductive-age women using opioids, Smid says. “The majority of the moms live in houses, they look like the moms in the mommy group. They live in cul-de-sacs, they work, they keep their jobs.”More than half of women who died in Smid’s study were sent home with their babies, Stephanie says, who read the study at University of Utah Health public affairs office’s request. “You don’t get sent home if the hospital or state think there’s a problem.” Which means, Stephanie says, that women are either not being screened for addiction and other histories, or are hiding them from their providers.All that said, Smid notes, Division of Child and Family Services does a full assessment “and determines safety for mom and baby. The perception is that the state takes your baby if you do drugs. That’s not always the case.”Postmortem, Smid found, providers didn’t know their patients had a history of overdose, substance use, and suicide attempts. “We’re not systematically asking every mom. We might ask the mom in Pioneer Park, but do you ask the Cottonwood Heights mom?” Sometimes providers do not ask their patients, because they don’t know what to do, Smid continues. “We have to train our providers in perinatal addiction care. They’re not automatically screening for substance use, mental health conditions and that’s a huge missed opportunity for us as providers to intervene and prevent these deaths. The system also needs to be able to respond to moms and have women-centered treatment facilities where moms can enter treatment with their children.”The study details numerous examples of other missed opportunities to identify pregnant women with drug use history in the system. A quarter of the women had a prior history of overdosing, yet none of them had had counseling regarding preventing overdose or a prescription for Narcan (Naloxone). Despite mental health and drug misuse, most of the women had not received mental health or drug treatment.The lack of screening for drug history is about to change. Smid has been training clinicians at U of U Health to implement the National Institute on Drug Abuse Quick Screen. The screening means providers, through a series of questions about alcohol, cigarette, and drug use, can both learn more about the patient and broach the potentially sensitive topic of prescription and opioid drug misuse. She and the U of U Health team are working to roll-out system-wide screening for every pregnant woman.Stephanie underscores how life-changing long-term treatment and recovery is. “This is like my fifteenth chance and I’m very grateful where I am right now,” she says. “I’m in a better place than I have been in my life since I was 10 years old.” Source:University of Utah HealthJournal reference:Smid, M. et al. (2019) Pregnancy-Associated Death in Utah: Contribution of Drug-Induced Deaths. Obstetrics & Gynecology. doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003279.
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 9 2019The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis is supported by multiple human epidemiological studies and animal studies. It states that the nutritional environment in early life makes people susceptible to lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and heart attack, as adults. Many of those diseases exhibit reduced mitochondrial metabolism in the tissues of the body. Now, researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan reveal that two metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism may play a role in the DOHaD hypothesis.All cells regulate gene expression related to metabolic pathways, and adapt to environmental changes such as fluctuations in nutrition, oxygen supply, exercise, and temperature. Cells in the human body use two types of cellular metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. Mitochondrial respiration produces energy for the cell when oxygen is supplied (aerobic), and glycolysis is used when oxygen is scarce (anaerobic). The activity of metabolic genes changes significantly as the method of energy production shifts between these two mechanisms. Some of the most critical changes are due to histone acetylation and methylation (the addition/removal of acetyl and methyl groups) of lysine amino acids. The enzymes deacetylase SIRT1 and demethylase LSD1 are especially important in the regulation of metabolic genes because they remove the acetyl and methyl groups, respectively, of target proteins.Two metabolic pathways, NAD+ -SIRT1 and FAD-LSD1, regulate the function of specific gene sets, and transmit nutrient signals. Recently, Kumamoto University researchers revealed that these two pathways are controlled by dietary vitamins and nutritional hormones, induce metabolic activity, and develop tissue-specific properties in fat and skeletal muscle cells. They found that FAD-LSD1 pathway represses mitochondrial metabolism and induces fat accumulation under obese condition.Related StoriesNanoparticles used to deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cellDiet and physical exercise do not reduce risk of gestational diabetesDiet and nutrition influence microbiome in colonic mucosaDOHaD theorizes that people affected by malnutrition during early development may have a low birth weight and an increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases as adults. Although the mechanisms behind this have not been clarified, the researchers think that at least two responses work at different times. The immediate response consumes stored energy and prioritizes maintaining life, and the adaptive response “programs” the body to store energy in anticipation of future bouts of starvation. This is considered a natural survival strategy for nascent undernutrition. An adaptive response can easily adjust to undernutrition, but it makes a person more susceptible to lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, under an excess of nutrition.The NAD+-SIRT1 pathway burns energy and the FAD-LSD1 pathway stores energy, and together they can remodel metabolic tissues. In muscle development, the SIRT and LSD1 pathways selectively promote slow and fast twitch fiber formation respectively, which increases susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases. Thus, the researchers believe that these enzymes are involved in DOHaD mechanisms. Specifically, that SIRT1 can play a role in the immediate response and that LSD1 can be involved in the adaptive response.Speaking about future activities, research leader Professor Mitsuyoshi Nakao said, “We hope our work will help lead to new disease control and prevention strategies by improving the understanding of lifestyle-related diseases, and the nutrition of young parents and babies during perinatal periods.”This work was posted online in “Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism” on 5 May 2019. Source:Kumamoto UniversityJournal reference:Nakao, M. et al. (2019) Distinct Roles of the NAD+-Sirt1 and FAD-LSD1 Pathways in Metabolic Response and Tissue Development. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2019.04.010.
Explore further Google is using its logo Thursday to honor a pioneer in geochemistry. The company’s latest doodle pays tribute to Katsuko Saruhashi, born on this day 98 years ago in Japan.Saruhashi is credited with creating a table bearing her name accurately measuring the amount of carbonic acid in water based on its temperature, pH level and chlorinity. The table has served as a critical tool for oceanographers.Saruhashi also developed a technique to trace how radioactive fallout travels across oceans.Google’s doodle features an image of Saruhashi with an oceanic backdrop to symbolize her achievements.Saruhashi was not only the first woman earn a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Tokyo in 1957, but the first woman elected to the Science Council of Japan.She also started the Saruhashi Prize in 1981, which recognizes female scientists for research in natural sciences. Google tips hat to Charlie Chaplin with video doodle ©2018 USA Today Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Citation: Google honors geochemist Katsuko Saruhashi (2018, March 23) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-google-honors-geochemist-katsuko-saruhashi.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The Metron platform is designed to perform early traffic classification and apply tags to the packets. Then hardware can accurately dispatch traffic to the correct CPU core of a commodity server based upon the tag. “We also exploit our earlier work (called Synthesized Network Functions), to realize a highly optimized traffic classifier by synthesizing its internal operations, while eliminating processing redundancy,” Kostic says.The researchers’ experiments on a 100 gigabit per second ethernet (GbE) network realized services with dramatically lower latency (up to 4.7x), higher throughput (up to 7.8x), and better efficiency (up to 6.5x) than is currently possible. Kostic says the work enables network operators to offer high throughput and low predictable latency – key requirements for future networks. “This is also relevant for popular services such as Google, Microsoft, Facebook, and Twitter.””It shows that popular network services can be provided to billions of users at a high quality, by efficiently exploiting the increasing networking speeds,” he says. More information: Metron: NFV Service Chains at the True Speed of the Underlying Hardware, Georgios P. Katsikas, RISE SICS and KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Tom Barbette, University of Liege; Dejan Kostic, KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Rebecca Steinert, RISE SICS; Gerald Q. Maguire Jr., KTH Royal Institute of Technology, NSDI 18 www.usenix.org/conference/nsdi … resentation/katsikas Making connections faster means getting networks to process data packets in a different way, which is what a team from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, RISE SICS, and University of Liege reportedly have done. In a recent conference paper, the researchers introduced a new platform, Metron, for network functions virtualization, which enables network services to function at the true speed of the underlying hardware.”We are the first to enable modern network services to operate at the speed of the underlying commodity hardware, at wireline speed, thus achieving ultra-high throughput with low predictable latency, and high resource efficiency,” says Dejan Kostic. The researchers believe Metron could help networks meet performance expectations even as demand for services such as high definition video, social media, and cloud-based applications continues to grow.While available specialized hardware can accommodate these speeds, modern networks have adopted a new networking model that replaces expensive specialized hardware with open-source software running on commodity hardware, Kostic explains. “But achieving high performance using commodity hardware is hard to do, and current solutions fail to satisfy the performance requirements of high speed networks.”For one thing, the data uplink and downlink requires a network to take a couple of steps that make a big difference. Each packet of data must be inspected, then it’s directed to servers where it must locate its destination among a multitude of cores, each designed to fulfill a specific service. Even as demand for web services grows alongside countless internet of things applications, a new platform could enable networks to deliver speeds of up to 100 Gbps. Credit: KTH Royal Institute of Technology Even though mobile internet link speeds might soon achieve 100 Gbps, this doesn’t necessarily mean network carriers will be free of data-handling challenges that effectively slow down mobile data services, for everything from individual device users to billions of Internet-of-Things connections. Explore further Nicira promises virtual networks will transform networking An overview of the Metron platform. Credit: KTH Royal Institute of Technology Provided by KTH Royal Institute of Technology Citation: Platform for mobile networks would bring services up to speeds of 100 Gbps (2018, May 15) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-platform-mobile-networks-gbps.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Comcast, Fox both raise bids as they reach for Sky (2018, July 12) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-comcast-fox-sky.html The stakes now stand at 26 billion pounds ($34 billion)—the value of Comcast’s latest offer. That bid came after Fox raised its bid to 24.5 billion pounds ($32.5 billion) earlier in the day.Comcast’s new bid translates to 14.75 pounds per share, or 18 percent more than its original offer. Fox is dangling 14 pounds per share for the 61 percent of Sky that it doesn’t already own, more than 30 percent above its first bid in December 2016.The duel for Sky is unfolding as Fox itself is the object of a takeover battle between Comcast and Disney. Disney said in June it is offering more than $71 billion for Fox’s entertainment businesses in a counterbid to Comcast’s nearly $66 billion offer.Sky operates in Austria, Germany, Ireland and Italy as well as the U.K. It has 22.5 million customers, attracted by offerings such as English Premier League soccer and “Game of Thrones.”Fox, which is run by media mogul Rupert Murdoch, still faces significant regulatory battles in Britain. The challenges include the culture secretary’s assertion that Fox would have to sell Sky News to win government approval because of concerns about media plurality.Fox’s bid for Sky is the most recent episode in Murdoch’s long-running effort to take full control of the company.His last bid foundered amid a 2011 phone-hacking scandal, in which journalists working for Murdoch newspapers were accused of gaining illegal access to the voicemail messages of crime victims, celebrities and members of the royal family. News Corp., which is controlled by the Murdochs, withdrew its bid for Sky soon after.Both Comcast and Fox want Sky in order to amass more programming as they compete for viewers with both traditional TV networks and technology companies such as Netflix and Amazon. This Friday, July 25, 2014, file photo shows a view of the headquarters of the Italian Sky television broadcaster in Milan, Italy. Media mogul Rupert Murdoch’s 21st Century Fox has increased its bid to take full control of Sky in a prolonged battle with Comcast for the lucrative pay TV service. Fox Wednesday, July 11, 2018 increased its bid to 14 pounds ($18.58) a share as it seeks the 61 percent of Sky not already under its control. (AP Photo/Luca Bruno, File) Murdoch’s 21st Century Fox ups Sky bid to beat rival Comcast The battle for European pay TV service Sky escalated Wednesday as U.S. rivals Comcast and 21st Century Fox took turns upping the ante in their quest to expand their media empires. Explore further © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.